Papers Discussing Significance Testing

The following list of papers discussing null hypothesis significance testing as a method of inference covers the period 2001-2011. The list is intended to supplement previous compilations through 1997 by Marks Nester at http://warnercnr.colostate.edu/~anderson/nester.html, and another through 2001 by Bill Thompson at http://warnercnr.colostate.edu/~anderson/thompson1.html. The list includes a few papers prior to 2001 that did not appear in either of these two previous compilations. The list may not be complete, either because a paper was simply missed, or because the primary focus of a paper did not seem to be relevant to significance testing. Internet links are provided where available. Abstracts are usually available at no charge, but some sites require a fee or subscription for the full text.

Anderson, D. R. (2008). Model Based Inference in the Life Sciences: A Primer on Evidence. New York: Springer. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Anttonen, R. G. (1970). The significance of the null. The Journal of Educational Research 63(10): 438-440. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Balluerka Lasa, N., A. I. Vergara Iraeta, et al. (2009). Calculating the main alternatives to null-hypothesis-significance testing in between-subject experimental designs. Psicothema 21 (1): 141-151. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Balluerka, N., J. Gómez, et al. (2005). The controversy over null hypothesis significance testing revisited. Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences 1(2): 55-70. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Barber, J. J. and K. Ogle. 2014. To P or not to P? Ecology 95: 621-626.

Bayarri, M. J. and J. O. Berger. 2004. The interplay of Bayesian and frequentist analysis. Statistical Science 19 :58-80.

Beaulieu-Prévost, D. (2007). Statistical decision and falsification in science: Going beyond the null hypothesis. In Cognitive Decision-Making: Empirical and Foundational Issues, ed. Hardy-Vallee, B. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholar Publishing.

Beninger, P. G., I. Boldina, and S. Katsanevakis. (2012). Strengthening statistical usage in marine ecology. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 426-427: 97-108. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Berger, J. O. (2003). Could Fisher, Jeffreys and Neyman have agreed on testing? Statistical Science 18(1): 1-32. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Berger, J. O. and J. Mortera. 1991. Interpreting the stars in precise hypothesis testing. International Statistical Review 59: 337-353.

Blaich, C. F. (1998). The null-hypothesis significance-test procedure: Can't live with it, can't live without it. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 194-195. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Bonett, D., and T. Wright (2007). Comments and recommendations regarding the hypothesis testing controversy. Journal of Organizational Behavior 28(6): 647-659.

Bookstein, F. (1998). Statistical significance testing was not meant for weak corroborations of weaker theories. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 195-196. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Boyce, M. S. 2002. Statistics as viewed by biologists. Journal of Agricultural Biological and Environmental Statistics 7: 306-312.

Brosi, B. J., and E. G. Biber (2009). Statistical inference, Type II error, and decision making under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 7(9): 487-494. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Buckland, S. T., D. R. Anderson, K. P. Burnham, J. L. Laake, D. L. Borchers and L. Thomas (2001). Introduction to Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. New York: Oxford University Press.

Burnham, K. P. and D. R. Anderson. 2014. P values are only an index to evidence: 20th- vs. 21st-century statistical science. Ecology 95: 627-630.

Burnham, K. P., and D. R. Anderson (2002). Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. New York: Springer. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Butcher, J. A., J. E. Groce, et al. (2007). Persistent controversy in statistical approaches in wildlife sciences: A perspective of students. The Journal of Wildlife Management 71(7): 2142-2144. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Camp, R. J., N. E. Seavy, et al. (2008). A statistical test to show negligible trend: comment. Ecology 89(5): 1469-1472. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Carver, R. P. 1978. The case against statistical significance testing. Harvard Educational Review 48 :378-399.

Chinipardaz, R., and A. Abtahi (2008). Testing a point null hypothesis: The comparison of p-Values and Bayesian evidence in multivariate normal distribution. Pakistan Journal of Statistics 24(2): 123-133.

Chisholm, R., and R. Taylor (2007). Null-hypothesis significance testing and the critical weight range for Australian mammals. Conservation Biology 21(6): 1641-1645. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Chow, S. (1988). Significance test or effect size? Psychological Bulletin 103(1): 105-110. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Chow, S. (1998). The null-hypothesis significance-test procedure is still warranted. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 228-235. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Chow, S. L. (1998). Précis of Statistical significance: Rationale, validity, and utility. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21: 169-239. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Cole, R., and G. McBride (2004).  Assessing impacts of dredge spoil disposal using equivalence tests: Implications of a precautionary (proof of safety) approach.  Marine Ecology Progress Series 279: 63-72. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Colegrave, N. and G. D. Ruxton. 2003. Confidence intervals are a more useful complement to nonsignificant tests than are power calculations. Behavioral Ecology 14: 446-450.

Cormack, R. M. (1988). Statistical challenges in the environmental sciences: A personal view. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society A 151:201-210.

Cowgill, G. (1977). The trouble with significance tests and what we can do about it. American Antiquity 42(3): 350-368. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Dahiru, T. 2008. P-value, a true test of statistical significance? A cautionary note. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine 6:21-26. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Dar, R. (1998). Null hypothesis tests and theory corroboration: Defending NHSTP out of context. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 196-197. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

de Valpine, P. 2014. The common sense of P values. Ecology 95: 617-621.

Denis, D. (2003). Alternatives to null hypothesis significance testing. Theory & Science 4(1). The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

D'Errico, G. E. (2009). Issues in significance testing. Measurement 42(10): 1478-1481. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Dienes, Z. (2011). Bayesian versus orthodox statistics: Which side are you on? Perspectives on Psychological Science 6(3): 274-290. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Dixon, P. M., and J. H. K. Pechmann (2008). A statistical test to show negligible trend: A reply. Ecology 89(5): 1473. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Eberhardt, L. L. (2003). What should we do about hypothesis testing? The Journal of Wildlife Management 67(2): 241-247. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Eguchi, T. and T. Gerrodette (2009) A Bayesian approach to line-transect analysis for estimating abundance. Ecological Modelling, 220, 1620-1630. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Ellison, A. M., N. J. Gotelli, B. D. Inouye, and D. R. Strong. 2014. P values, hypothesis testing, and model selection: It’s déjà vu all over again. Ecology 95: 609-610.

Erwin, E. (1998). The logic of null hypothesis testing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 197-198. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Fairweather, P. G. 1991. Statistical power and design requirements for environmental monitoring. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 42: 555-567.

Fernandez-Duque, E. (1997). Comparing and combining data across studies: Alternatives to significance testing. Oikos 79(3): 616-618. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Fidler, F. (2002). The fifth edition of the APA Publication Manual: Why its statistics recommendations are so controversial. Educational and Psychological Measurement 62(5): 749-770. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Fidler, F., M. A. Burgman, et al. (2006). Impact of criticism of null-hypothesis significance testing on statistical reporting practices in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 20(5): 1539-1544. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Finch, S., G. Cumming, et al. (2001). Reporting of statistical inference in the Journal of Applied Psychology: Little evidence of reform. Educational and Psychological Measurement 61(2): 181-210. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Fowler, N. 1990. The 10 most common statistical errors. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 71: 161-164.

Fraley, R., and M. Marks (2007). The null hypothesis significance-testing debate and its implications for personality research. In Handbook of Research Methods in Personality Psychology, ed. Robins, R. W., R. C. Fraley and R. F. Krueger, 149-169. New York: The Guilford Press. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Freedman, D. A. (1983). A note on screening regression equations. The American Statistician 37: 152-155.

Frick, R. (1998). Chow's defense of null-hypothesis testing: Too traditional? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 199. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Gelman, A., J. B. Carlin, H. S. Stern and D. B. Rubin (2004). Bayesian Data Analysis. Boca Raton, FL: Chapman & Hall/CRC. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Gelman, A., and H. Stern (2006). The difference between 'significant' and 'not significant' is not itself statistically significant. The American Statistician 60(4): 328-331. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Gerrodette, T. (2011). Inference without significance: Measuring support for hypotheses rather than rejecting them. Marine Ecology. 32: 404-418.

Gerrodette, T., B. L. Taylor, R. Swift, S. Rankin, L. A. Jaramillo and L. Rojas-Bracho (2011) A combined visual and acoustic estimate of 2008 abundance, and change in abundance since 1997, for the vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Marine Mammal Science 27(2): E79-E100.

Gibbons, J. M., N. M. J. Crout, et al. (2007). What role should null-hypothesis significance tests have in statistical education and hypothesis falsification? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22(9): 445-446. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Glück, J., and O. Vitouch (1998). Stranded statistical paradigms: The last crusade. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 200-201. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Good, I. J. (1985). Tail-area probabilities and Bayes factors as distances from the null hypothesis. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation 20(4): 325-325. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Good, I. J. (1958). Significance tests in parallel and in series. Journal of the American Statistical Association 53:799-813.

Goodie, A. S. (2004). Null hypothesis statistical testing and the balance between positive and negative approaches. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27(3): 338-339. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Goodman, S. N. 1999. Toward evidence-based medical statistics. 2: The Bayes factor. Annals of Internal Medicine 130: 1005-1013.

Goodman, S. N. (2001). Of p-values and Bayes: A modest proposal. Epidemiology 12(3): 295-297.

Goodman, D. (2004a). Methods for joint inference from multiple data sources for improved estimates of population size and survival rates. Marine Mammal Science, 20(3), 401-423. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Goodman, D. (2004b). "aking the prior seriously: Bayesian analysis without subjective probability. In The Nature of Scientific Evidence: Statistical, Philosophical, and Empirical Considerations, ed. M.L. Taper and S. R. LeleChicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goodman, S. N., and S. Greenland (2007). Why most published research findings are false: Problems in the analysis. PLoS Medicine 4(4): e168. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Gray, B. R., and M. M. Burlew (2007). Estimating trend precision and power to detect trends across grouped count data. Ecology, 88(9), 2364-2372. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Gregg, A. P., and C. Sedikides (2004). Is social psychological research really so negatively biased? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27(3): 340-341. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Guthery, Fred S. (2008). Statistical ritual versus knowledge accrual in wildlife science. Journal of Wildlife Management 72(8): 1872-1875. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Guthery, F. S., J. J. Lusk, et al. (2001). The fall of the null hypothesis: Liabilities and opportunities. The Journal of Wildlife Management 65(3): 379-384. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Hagen, R. (1997). In praise of the null hypothesis significance test. American Psychologist 52(1): 15-24. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Hamilton, W. I. (1993). Testing the Null Hypothesis. Journal of Forestry 91(1): 5.

Harris, R. (1998). 'With friends like this...': Three flaws in Chow's defense of significance testing. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 202-203. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Hobbs, N. T., and R. Hilborn (2006). Alternatives to statistical hypothesis testing in ecology: A guide to self teaching. Ecological Applications 16(1): 5-19. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Hobbs, N. T., S. Twombly, et al. (2006). Deepening ecological insights using contemporary statistics. Ecological Applications 16(1): 3-4. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Hoekstra, R., S. FINCH, et al. (2006). Probability as certainty: Dichotomous thinking and the misuse of p values. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 13(6): 1033-1037. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Hoenig, J. M., and D. M. Heisey (2001). The abuse of power: The pervasive fallacy of power calculations for data analysis. The American Statistician 55(1): 19-24. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Hunter, J. E. 1997. Needed: A ban on the significance test. Psychological Science 8: 3-7.

Hunter, J. (1998). Testing significance testing: A flawed defense. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 204. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Hurlbert, S. H., and C. M. Lombardi (2009). Final collapse of the Neyman-Pearson decision theoretic framework and rise of the neoFisherian. Annales Zoologici Fennici 46(5): 311-349. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Medicine 2(8): e124. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Ioannidis, J. P. A. (2007). Why most published research findings are false: Author's reply to Goodman and Greenland. PLoS Medicine 4(6): e215. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Jaramillo-Legorreta, A., L. Rojas-Bracho, E. L. Brownell, Jr., A. J. Read, R. R. Reeves, K. Ralls and B. L. Taylor (2007). Saving the vaquita: Immediate action, not more data. Conservation Biology, 21(6), 1653-1655.

Johnson, D. H. (2002). The role of hypothesis testing in wildlife science. The Journal of Wildlife Management 66(2): 272-276. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Jones, L., and J. Tukey (2000). A sensible formulation of the significance test. Psychological Methods 5(4): 411-414. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Kelley, J. (2009). The perils of p-values: Why tests of statistical significance impede the progress of research. Handbook of Evidence-Based Psychodynamic Psychotherapy: 367-377. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Kihlstrom, J. (1998). If you've got an effect, test its significance; if you've got a weak effect, do a meta-analysis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 205-206. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Kluger, A. N., and J. Tikochinsky (2001). The error of accepting the "theoretical" null hypothesis: The rise, fall, and resurrection of commonsense hypotheses in psychology. Psychological Bulletin 127(3): 408-423. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Krueger, L. (1998). The Ego has landed! The .05 level of statistical significance is soft (Fisher) rather than hard (Neyman/Pearson). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 207-208. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Läärä, E. (2009). Statistics: reasoning on uncertainty, and the insignificance of testing null. Annales Zoologici Fennici 46(2): 138-157.

Lecoutre, B., M.-P. Lecoutre, et al. (2001). Uses, abuses and misuses of significance tests in the scientific community: Won't the Bayesian choice be unavoidable? International Statistical Review 69(3): 399-417. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Lee, M. D., and K. J. Pope (2006). Model selection for the rate problem: A comparison of significance testing, Bayesian, and minimum description length statistical inference. Journal of Mathematical Psychology 50(2): 193-202. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Lee, M. D., and E.-J. Wagenmakers (2005). Bayesian statistical inference in psychology: Comment on Trafimow (2003). Psychological Review 112(3): 662-668. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Lew, M. J. (2006). Principles: When there should be no difference - how to fail to reject the null hypothesis. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 27(5): 274-278. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Lindley, D. V. 1957. A statistical paradox. Biometrika 44: 187-192.

Link, W. A., and R. J. Barker (2010). Bayesian Inference with Ecological Applications. New York: Academic Press. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Loftus, G. R. (1996). Psychology will be a much better science when we change the way we analyze data. Current Directions in Psychological Science 5(6): 161-171. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Lombardi, C. M., and S. H. Hurlbert (2009). Misprescription and misuse of one-tailed tests. Austral Ecology 34(4): 447-468. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Luft, H. S. (2000). Identifying and assessing the null hypothesis. Health Services Research 34(6): 1265-1271.

Mackintosh, N. J. (1987). From null hypothesis to null dogma. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10(4): 689-695. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Malgady, R. (2000). Myths about the null hypothesis and the path to reform. In Handbook of Cross-cultural and Multicultural Personality Assessment, ed. R. H. Dana, 49-62. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Martien, K. K., and B. L. Taylor (2003). Limitations of hypothesis-testing in defining management units for continuously distributed species. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5(3): 213-218.

Martínez del Rio, C., S. W. Buskirk, et al. (2007). Response to Gibbons et al.: Null-hypothesis significance tests in education and inference. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22(9): 446. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

McBride, G. B. (2002). Statistical methods helping and hindering environmental science and management. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 7(3): 300-305. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

McIlroy, D. R. (2005). Failing to reject the null hypothesis does not mean that the null hypothesis is true. Anesthesia and Analgesia 100(6): 1868-1869.

Meeks, S. L., and R. B. Dagostino (1983). A note on the use of confidence-limits following rejection of a null hypothesis. American Statistician 37(2): 134-136. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Mogie, M. (2004). In support of null hypothesis significance testing. Proceedings: Biological Sciences. London: The Royal Society. 271(3): S82-S84. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Morrison, D. E., and R. Henkel, Eds. (1970). The Significance Test Controversy: A Reader. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers (reprinting).

Mundry, R., and C. L. Nunn (2009). Stepwise model fitting and statistical inference: Turning noise into signal pollution. The American Naturalist 173(1): 119-123. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Murtaugh, P. A. 2014. In defense of P values. Ecology 95: 611-617.

Nakagawa, S., and I. C. Cuthill (2007). Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: A practical guide for biologists. Biological Reviews 82(4): 591-605. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Nester, M. R. (1998). Significance tests cannot be justified in theory-corroboration experiments. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 213. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Ngatia, M., D. Gonzalez, et al. (2010). Equivalence versus classical statistical tests in water quality assessments. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 12(1): 172-177. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Nicholls, N. (2001). The insignificance of significance testing. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 82(5): 981-986. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Oakes, W. F. (1975). On alleged falsity of null hypothesis. Psychological Record 25(2): 265-272.

Paley, J., H. Cheyne, et al. (2008). The null hypothesis: A reply.  Journal of Advanced Nursing 64(2): 209-210. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Palm, G. (1998). Significance testing–does it need this defence? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 214-215. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Peres-Neto, P. (1999). How many statistical tests are too many? The problem of conducting multiple ecological inferences revisited. Marine Ecology Progress Series 176: 303-306.

Poitevineau, J., and B. Lecoutre (1998). Some statistical misconceptions in Chow's statistical significance. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 215. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Rigby, A. (1999). Getting past the statistical referee: Moving away from p-values and towards interval estimation. Health Education Research 14(6): 713. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Rindskopf, D. (1998). Null-hypothesis tests are not completely stupid, but Bayesian statistics are better. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21(2): 215-216. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Robinson, D. H., and H. Wainer (2002). On the past and future of null hypothesis significance testing. The Journal of Wildlife Management 66(2): 263-271. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Rojas-Bracho, L., R. R. Reeves and A. Jaramillo-Legorreta (2006). Conservation of the vaquita, Phocoena sinus. Mammal Review, 36(3), 179-216. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Salsburg, D. (2001). The Lady Tasting Tea: How Statistics Revolutionized Science in the Twentieth Century. New York: W. H. Freeman / Holt Paperbacks. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Schwann, N. M., and J. Horrow (2005). Failing to reject the null hypothesis does not mean that the null hypothesis is true - In response. Anesthesia and Analgesia 100(6): 1869. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Scialli, A. R. (1992). Confidence and the null hypothesis. Reproductive Toxicology 6(5): 383-384. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Sedlmeier, P. (2009). Beyond the significance test ritual. Zeitschrift für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology 217(1): 1-5. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Sellke, T., M. J. Bayarri, et al. (2001). Calibration of p values for testing precise null hypotheses. The American Statistician 55(1): 62-71. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Shrader-Frechette, K. (2011). Randomization and rules for causal inferences in biology: When the biological emperor (significance testing) has no clothes. Biological Theory 6:154-161.

Shrout, P. E. (1997). Should significance tests be banned? Introduction to a special section exploring the pros and cons. Psychological Science 8:1-2.

Siegfried, T. (2010). Odds are, it's wrong. Science News 177(7): 26. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Silva-Aycaguer, L. C., P. Suarez-Gil, et al. (2010). The null hypothesis significance test in health sciences research (1995-2006): Statistical analysis and interpretation. BMC Medical Research Methodology 10: 44. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Simonne, E., M. Ozores-Hampton, et al. (2007). So, you wanted to accept the null hypothesis? Analysis and interpretation of fertilizer trials in the BMP era. HortScience 42(3): 440.

Smedslund, G. (2008). All bachelors are unmarried men (p < 0.05). Quality & Quantity 42(1): 53-73. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Sohn, D. (2000). Does the finding of statistical significance justify the rejection of the null hypothesis? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23(2): 293-294. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Soper, H. V., D. V. Cicchetti, et al. (1988). Null hypothesis disrespect in neuropsychology: Dangers of alpha and beta errors. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 10(2): 255-270. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

Stallings, W., and S. Singhal (1969). Confidence level and significance level: Semantic confusion or logical fallacy. The Journal of Experimental Educational 37(4): 57-59. The previous link is a link to Non-Federal government web site. Click to review NOAA Fisheries Disclaimer

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Last modified: 12/24/2014