The Marine Mammal and Turtle Division conducts marine mammal assessment cruises along the coast, shelf, and slope of California, Oregon, and Washington in order to provide updated estimates of cetacean and pinniped populations in these waters. Concurrently with these cruises, the Ecology Program conducts research on oceanography, micronekton, and seabirds. Recent "ORCAWALE" cruises occurred in 1996 and 2001.
Pitman, R.L., L.T. Ballance, S. L. Mesnick, and S. J. Chivers. 2001. Killer whale predation on sperm whales: observations and implications. Marine Mammal Science 17(3):494-507.
Hoefer, C.J. 2000. Marine bird attraction to thermal fronts in the California Current System. Condor 102:423- 427.
Philbrick, V. A., P. C. Fiedler, L. T. Ballance, and D. A. Demer. 2003. Report of ecosystem studies conducted during the 2001 Oregon, California, and Washington (ORCAWALE) marine mammal survey on the research vessels David Starr Jordan and McArthur. U.S. Department of Commerce. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-349.