Boreal Cold northern regions.

Bycatch When species other than the target species are caught in a fishing operation, alive or dead. This term also refers to interactions with fishing gear and discards. 

Circumglobal Occurring around the world; having a worldwide distribution.

Epipelagic The waters from the surface to depths generally not exceeding around 200 m (0-109 fm).

Pelagic The vertical habitat of an animal living in the upper levels of a body of water. See also epipelagic and mesopelagic.

Mesopelagic The vertical habitat within the mid-depths of the ocean between 200 and 1000 m (109-547 fm).

Neritic Inhabiting primarily coast waters primarily over the continental shelf; generally over bottom depths equal to or less than 183 m or 100 fm deep.

Oceanic Inhabiting the open sea, ranging beyond continental and insular shelves, beyond the neritic zone.

Ovipary A mode of reproduction in which female sharks deposit eggs enclosed in oblong or conical egg-cases on the bottom, producing young sharks which are miniatures of the adults. Eggs usually take a couple of months to hatch. 

Ovovivipary Live-bearing reproductive mode in which the young are nourished primarily by the yolk in the yolk-sac, which is gradually depleted and the yolk-sac resorbed until the young are ready to be born.

Rebound Potential The 'rebound potential' (rZmsy) represents the rate at which a fish population has the potential to increase after being hypothetically exposed to a maximum sustainable yield (MSY) level of harvest. It assumes the chosen MSY level of mortality is in fact sustainable, and is compensated for by an increase in juvenile survival as the population is reduced by fishing, but only to the extent possible given the constraints of a species' individual core life history parameters ( age at maturity, maximum reproductive age and fecundity, natural mortality).

Sexual segregation The apparent differences in migration and aggregation between the sexes of adult sharks throughout the specie's typical range.

Temperate Moderate ocean temperatures, between 50º and 71ºF. Two circumglobal bands of temperate ocean are found between the Tropic of Cancer to the Arctic Circle in the north, and between the Tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic Circle in the south.

Vivipary Reproductive mode where the maternal adult gives birth to live young. May refer to all forms of live-bearing or aplacental (no placenta) birth.

Most definitions are adapted from:

Compagno, Leonard J. V., Marc Dando, and Sarah L. Fowler. Sharks of the World. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2005. 

Last modified: 11/30/2015